Laryngopedia

To educate about voice, swallowing, airway, coughing, and other head and neck disorders

Laryngopedia By Bastian Medical Media

Multimedia Encyclopedia


  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
You're viewing encyclopedia entries under B. You can click a different letter above to browse other entries.

Bacterial laryngitis

Bacterial laryngitis is an infection of the vocal cord mucosa by bacteria. During this infection, mucus produced in the larynx is usually colored yellow, green, or brown. If the patient’s laryngitis isn’t reasonably self-limited, antibiotics can be prescribed, along with relative voice rest and hydration.



Bilateral vocal cord fixation

Immobility of both vocal cords due to a scarring rather than paralytic cause. The scarring might manifest as a synechia that tethers the vocal cords to each other and prevents them from separating during breathing. Or it could mean that both cricoarytenoid joints are ankylosed, or “frozen.”

The commonest cause of bilateral vocal cord fixation is prolonged endotracheal intubation, such as in gravely ill or injured persons, who may spend weeks in an intensive care unit and on a ventilator. Vocal cord fixation can rarely be caused by rheumatoid arthritis. It is also seen infrequently as a progressive, late complication of radiation therapy for larynx cancer.


Photos:




Biopsy

Refers to both the process of removing a bit of tissue from a person so that it can be studied and “diagnosed” by the pathologist, and also to the piece of tissue itself. “The surgeon biopsied (verb) the vocal cord and then sent the biopsy (noun) to the pathologist for examination under the microscope.”


Photos:





Botox™

Botox™, the trade name of botulinum toxin, is a drug produced by the same bacterial organism (Clostridium botulinum) that causes the disease process called botulism. Tiny, entirely safe quantities of this medication have been used for decades to treat strabismus, facial spasms, spasmodic dysphonia, cervical dystonia, and other neurological disorders characterized by abnormal muscle contractions. Botox is also used by cosmetic surgeons to smooth wrinkles temporarily.



Botulinum toxin

See Botox.



Bowing of the vocal cords

This is a descriptive term to specify that the vocal cords are not matching in a straight line, with only a thin dark line between them at the moment of pre-phonation. Instead, the cords become gently concave or bowed outwards. At the moment of pre-phonation, there is a wider, oval slit between the cords.

Bowing can be physiologic, asymptomatic, and a genetic “given.” In this physiologic type, the bowing will be subtle to mild and there will be good vibratory pattern. When moderate or severe, bowing may more likely be the result of aging, vocal disuse, Parkinson’s disease, or other conditions. Moderate and severe bowing correlate with a degree of vocal cord atrophy and the vibratory pattern can be more flaccid. The voice tends to have a soft-edged quality and to fade with use. Voice building is the primary treatment, but very occasionally severe bowing is treated with bilateral vocal cord implants.


Photos:












Voice Building:

Voice Building (shorter version):



Breathing Tube Injury: Synechiae


 



Breathy dysphonia

Breathy dysphonia is a kind of hoarseness caused by “wasting” of air through the glottis (vocal cord level). Also called air-wasting dysphonia. The voice may also be described as whispery, foggy, or fuzzy.



Breathy-pressed phonation or dysphonia

Breathy-pressed phonation or dysphonia is an easily identified dysphonia that combines two phenomenologies – audible muscular effort + a breathy, air-wasting quality. The classic disorder in which this is noted is severe intubation injury.



Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy is a procedure during which the examiner looks inside the trachea and bronchial tubes, typically using a slender, flexible fiberoptic or videoscope. At our practice, this procedure is usually performed using topical anesthesia with or without sedation, “in the chair” rather than in a hospital setting.



  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z