Normal Larynx

Below are images of a normal larynx, offered as a point of comparison for all of the examples of laryngeal diseases and disorders elsewhere on Laryngopedia. One can reasonably call the vocal cords, “laryngeal lips.” Thinking of a trumpeter’s lips as an analogy, he or she separates them to take a breath, and then pinches […]

Glottic Stenosis or Scarring

Glottic stenosis refers to scarring in the larynx at the level of the vocal cords (glottis). It usually narrows the space available between the cords for inflow of air to the lungs while breathing. Or it can cause divots in the posterior vocal cords. Examples of possible causes: Congenital Web A baby can be born […]

Can’t Burp? Comprehensive Resources for R-CPD (in One Place)

Can’t burp? You’ve come to the right place. Inability to belch or “burp” (Also known as Retrograde Cricopharyngeus Dysfunction, or R-CPD for short) occurs when the upper esophageal sphincter (cricopharyngeus muscle) loses its ability to relax in order to release the “bubble” of air.


A waxy, translucent protein substance deposited into tissue in response either to unknown local factors, or as a manifestation of systemic disease, such as multiple myeloma. Treatment is generally directed at improving function, for example via local laser excision. See also: Amyloidosis Amyloidosis of the Larynx as Seen Over Time, with Treatment

Abdominal Distention of R-CPD Including Before and After Botox Injection

One of the primary symptoms of R-CPD (inability to burp) is bloating. Bloating is often accompanied by actual abdominal distention due to excess air in both stomach and intestines. Since the person is unable to burp, air must now pass through the entire GI tract and be dispelled as flatulence. Can’t Burp: Progression of Bloating […]

Long Haul Covid-19 Breathing Tube Injuries Affecting Voice and Breathing

The term “long-haulers” has been used to refer to persons with lingering systemic symptoms after successful initial recovery from Covid-19. Symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, loss of taste and smell, brain fog, etc. occur weeks or months after first falling ill. Even some whose bout with Covid-19 seemed mild can experience this “long-haul” phenomenon. For […]

Larynx Lipoma

Lipoma is a benign fatty tumor that can occur in any part of the body. On the neck or some other unseen part of the body, it does not require removal. But in the larynx, slow enlargement may disturb voice or even breathing, and therefore these tumors need to be removed. Removal needs to be […]

R-CPD Esophageal Findings

The details of the following photos may support the R-CPD diagnosis, though they should not be considered diagnostic. Take note that all photos are non-channel scope images; that is, the scope is not able to insufflate (blow in) air. The significance: the esophagus is typically collapsed around endoscopes inserted into them and air is pumped in through […]