Laryngopedia

To educate about voice, swallowing, airway, coughing, and other head and neck disorders

Laryngopedia By Bastian Medical Media

Multimedia Encyclopedia


  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
You're viewing encyclopedia entries under F. You can click a different letter above to browse other entries.

False cord phonation

Making voice by vibrating the false vocal cords. This kind of phonation is unlike normal phonation or voice-making, which uses the true vocal cords.

False cord phonation produces a much deeper, rougher voice quality than normal phonation. It is purposefully used in certain kinds of vocal performance, such as Tibetan chant or heavy metal screaming. It can also occasionally serve as an alternate voice for a person whose true cords are unable to vibrate—due, for example, to their surgical removal or to scarring. It can also be produced concurrently with true cord phonation to produce a “Louis Armstrong” effect.


Photos:






Audio:

True cord phonation

False cord phonation

True and false cord phonation



False vocal cord

A cord of tissue separated from the true vocal cord by the laryngeal ventricle. The false vocal cord serves as a secondary sphincter to help close the larynx when swallowing. While not “intended” for voicing, the false cords can be brought into vibration, but create a deep, rough voice quality.



Falsetto register

Falsetto register is a term that is applied especially to men to the high “feminine” quality sound available to most above the chest (normal speaking) register. Some call this head register. Falsetto is used in some countertenor voices and, in other cases, for comic effect. Some use “falsetto” as a term to denote the voice quality above the first break, whether in the male or female voice. This is the quality used by female classical singers, as compared with a more intense chest voice phonation used in most popular styles. The language and concepts used to describe vocal registers vary widely; hence, care is warranted so as to not take any single definition, such as ours, too seriously!



Flaccidity of the Vocal Cords

Vocal cord flaccidity correlates to some degree with atrophy of the muscle comprising them. Bowing also accompanies flaccidity most of the time. It is possible to have bowed/slender vocal cords that are not particularly flaccid—they still vibrate with good firmness and resilience. Similarly, vocal cords that appear to have good bulk (and are not atrophied) can nevertheless have a flaccid vibratory pattern. Photos below show the visual findings of flaccidity as distinct from bowing and atrophy. Voice manifestations of flaccid vocal cords are similar to bowing in cases such as:

  • Loss of “edge”
  • Reduced ability to be heard in noisy places
  • Reduced vocal endurance (The voice becomes fuzzier or raspier and more air-wasting as the day progresses and the atrophied muscles tire).









Voice Building:

Voice Building (shorter version):



Food lodgment

Refers to when food gets stuck somewhere along its path from lips to stomach. Lodgment is more of a “full stop” of the food’s digestive journey, as compared with pooling. Lodgment usually occurs at one of these points: in the vallecula (usually in cases of presbyphagia); at the level of the cricopharyngeus muscle (in cases of cricopharyngeal dysfunction, which is one kind of achalasia); somewhere in the esophagus (in cases of esophageal stenosis); or at the lower esophageal sphincter (in cases of lower esophageal sphincter achalasia).



Foreign body

Photos:




Formant

A formant is any of several regions of increased intensity within the sound spectrum. The formant frequencies and their intensity relate not only to quality of the sound but also to vowel and consonant sounds.



Forme fruste Wegener’s granulomatosis

An incomplete or frustrated form (forme fruste) of Wegener’s granulomatosis,* which we believe to be the cause behind some cases of inflammatory subglottic or tracheal stenosis. Unlike full-fledged Wegener’s, this forme fruste variant may or may not necessarily involve the sinus and nasal cavities, and in the author’s caseload of about 60 patients, it has not ever progressed to involve the lungs and kidneys. Such patients can go for years with only the need for intermittent dilation of the subglottic or tracheal narrowing. This disorder may be the same as what some call “idiopathic subglottic stenosis,” for which some have recommended cricotracheal resection and reanastomosis as treatment.

*Newer terminology is granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)


Photos:











Videos:

Wegener’s Granulomatosis: Forme Fruste (incomplete expression)
Wegener’s granulomatosis is a rare autoimmune disorder in which blood vessels become inflamed. The inflammation causes swelling and scarring. Three typical organs attacked are sinus/nasal cavities, lungs, and kidneys. In the forme fruste variant, it is mostly an inflammatory stenosis (narrowing) of the area below the vocal cords, and also the trachea. A person becomes short of breath and begins to make harsh breathing sounds due to the narrowed passageway. This is an example of one means of management: dilation of the narrowed area during a very brief general anesthetic in an outpatient operating room.


Fracture of larynx

A break, with or without displacement, of the thyroid or cricoid cartilage. Decades ago, a common source of larynx fractures was car accidents, with a person’s neck striking the steering wheel. In this age of protective airbags, the primary source is athletic injuries (e.g., an elbow to the neck while playing basketball). Many larynx fractures are treated conservatively, but occasionally they require repair.


Photos:







Fundamental frequency

Fundamental frequency (Fo), in an acoustic spectrum, refers to the lowest tone in a harmonic series. Using auditory perception, fundamental frequency correlates with pitch.



  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z