Membranous Glottis

The anterior two-thirds of the vocal cord’s visible length and also, during breathing, the space between this segment of both cords. Also called the musculomembranous glottis. The layers of the membranous glottis, in order from deepest to most superficial, are: the thyroarytenoid muscle; the vocal ligament, made of elastin and collagen fibers; the mucosa, which […]

Laryngeal Ventricle

A fossa (Latin for “trench”) between the true and false vocal folds, running in an anterior–posterior direction. The laryngeal ventricle is bounded laterally by a mucus membrane, beyond which is the inner surface of the thyroid cartilage. At the anterior end of the ventricle is the opening of the laryngeal saccule (or laryngeal “appendix”).

Vallecula

Literally, the “little valley,” formed between the base of the tongue and the anterior face of the upright epiglottis.

False Vocal Cord

A cord of tissue separated from the true vocal cord by the laryngeal ventricle. The false vocal cord serves as a secondary sphincter to help close the larynx when swallowing. While not “intended” for voicing, the false cords can be brought into vibration, but create a deep, rough voice quality. False Cord Phonation Adductory Spasmodic […]

Aryepiglottic Cord

The aryepiglottic cord is the membranous sheet of tissue that stretches from the lateral edge of the epiglottis to the arytenoid cartilage. The upper edge of the aryepiglottic cord is like the gunwale of a boat, so that liquid or saliva can pool in the pyriform sinus without immediately spilling over into the laryngeal entrance. […]

Epiglottis

The epiglottis is the flexible, leaf-like cartilaginous structure that sits upright in the pharynx, between the base of the tongue and the larynx. The root or petiole of the epiglottis is inside the upper part of the thyroid cartilage just above the anterior insertion of the vocal cords. During swallowing, the epiglottis bends backward to […]

Posterior Pharyngeal Wall

The posterior pharyngeal wall is the back wall of the swallowing passage. The upper part of the posterior pharyngeal wall can be seen when one looks through an opened mouth, beyond the soft palate, uvula, and tonsils. There is a layer of mucosa, then muscle, and then the bodies of the cervical vertebrae. Pharyngocutaneous Fistula […]

Uvula

The uvula is the soft “peninsula” or “finger” that dangles from the middle of the soft palate. The purpose of the uvula is not completely understood, and it is sometimes removed in persons who snore or have sleep apnea.

Lateral

Away from the midline of a person’s body, along the left-right axis. For example: the lateral end of each eyebrow is the end that points away from the bridge of the nose. The opposite of medial.

Medial

Toward the midline of a person’s body, along the left-right axis. For example: the medial end of each eyebrow is the end that approaches the bridge of the nose. The opposite of lateral. Medial Examples in Relation to Laryngology: Medialization, before and after Classic Findings Again of PCA-only Paresis TA-only Paresis before and after Voice […]