Cryptococcus Neoformans

Cryptococcus neoformans laryngitis is a rare fungal infection of the larynx. The infection usually occurs as a primary pulmonary infection but can spread to other regions of the body. Common characteristics of cryptococcus neoformans include longstanding hoarseness, sore throat, or edema of the vocal cords. Cryptococcus neoformans laryngitis is treated with oral anti-fungal medications such […]


Also known as laryngotracheitis or laryngotracheobronchitis, croup 1 is a primarily pediatric viral disease affecting the larynx and trachea. Though it may resemble a simple cold at first, the infection causes a loud barking cough and stridor (unusual, high-pitched breathing noises indicating partial airway obstruction). The majority of cases are caused by parainfluenza viruses (types […]

Thyrohyoid Syndrome

A little-known inflammatory condition of the lateral thyrohyoid ligament and nearby tissues in the neck. The connective tissues in this area comprise in practical terms a floating “joint” that attaches the larynx to the hyoid bone. Inflammation of unknown cause can lead to a syndrome similar to tennis elbow, so that the point of attachment becomes chronically sore. […]

Rheumatoid Nodules

White, fibrous submucosal nodules of the vocal cords. Also called “bamboo nodes.” Rheumatoid nodules in other areas of the body (elbows, knuckles, etc.) are almost always seen with rheumatoid arthritis. They can be seen in the context of other auto-immune disorders and are sometimes seen before that disorder is diagnosed.

Post-surgical Laryngitis

Post-surgical laryngitis is inflammation of the larynx, not from infectious organisms, but from irritation caused by a surgical procedure. By analogy, think of the redness around a knuckle that has an abrasion but is not infected. Post-surgical laryngitis is typically transient and lasts only a few days following surgery. A typical time of recovery after […]

Auto-Immune Laryngitis

Inflammation of the vocal cords, especially of the layer just beneath the mucosa, caused by an auto-immune disorder. Auto-immune disorders that can potentially cause laryngitis (albeit infrequently) include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, Wegener’s granulomatosis, and combined auto-immune disorder. Some individuals develop an inflammatory picture of capillary prominence and mucosal edema which is unrelated to vibratory […]

Bacterial Laryngitis (can be acute or chronic)

Bacterial laryngitis is an infection of the vocal cord mucosa by bacteria (not a virus or fungal organism). During this infection, mucus produced in the larynx is usually colored yellow, green, or brown. This can occur in any person as an acute, self-limited infection. It typically resolves on its own with supportive measures like hydration and relative voice rest. If […]

Viral Laryngitis

Infection or inflammation of the vocal cord mucosa, caused by viral infection. The mucosa becomes pink or red, and the normally thin mucus blanket increases in volume and can become more viscous. If the mucosa becomes sufficiently inflamed and edematous, an individual can lose his or her voice transiently (for one to three days, typically). […]

Laryngitis Sicca

A condition of severe dryness in the larynx, almost always with crusting of mucus. Laryngitis sicca often makes the voice hoarse. Causes of Laryngitis Sicca: One cause of laryngitis sicca is the use of radiation therapy for cancer in the larynx. As the radiation therapy kills the tumor it is targeting, it may also damage or […]

Radiation Mucositis

Inflammation of mucosa caused by cancer-treating radiation. Mucositis is to mucosa as dermatitis is to skin. This inflammation appears reddish with patches of greyish superficial necrosis or ulceration. Typically, radiation mucositis fully resolves four to six weeks after the last radiation treatment. Photos: Laser Removal of Vocal Cord Cancer with Bilateral Disease For treatment of […]