Nonorganic Breathing Disorder, Laryngeal

Laryngeal nonorganic breathing disorder is when a person’s vocal cords partially or fully close during breathing, which causes noisy breathing. Also called vocal cord dysfunction (VFD) or vocal cord dysfunction (VCD). The fundamental disorder is not in the mechanism itself, but rather in the patient’s “use” of the mechanism. Consciously or sub-consciously, the patient inappropriately […]

Vocal “vincibility” Syndrome

Vocal “vincibility” syndrome is to believe mistakenly that one’s voice is inadequate to the demands of life. Typically, an individual with this syndrome becomes progressively averse to voice use. The term “vocal ‘vincibility’ syndrome” is not found in textbooks, but is coined here to describe this kind of self-sabotaging belief system. A classic case of […]

Vocal Fry Dysphonia

Vocal fry dysphonia is an abnormal production of voice during speaking, generating vocal fry (“pulse register”) phonation with only the true vocal cords. The voice quality from vocal fry phonation tends to be rough, very low-pitched, “gritty,” and monotonal. A typical pitch at which vocal fry occurs is around E2 (~82 Hz) or lower, and […]


Puberphonia is the inappropriate persistence of higher-pitched prepubertal voice long after puberty and normal voice change. Also called mutational falsetto. Such individuals maintain something like their high-pitched, childhood voice by speaking in falsetto register. The cause of puberphonia is never known with precision. Some think the condition arises more often in men whose voices mutate […]

Disorder of Vocal Loudness Perception

A lack of awareness or perception of one’s personal vocal “volume level” to the point that it is creating difficulty in one’s life. If asked to place oneself on a personal loudness scale from 1 to 7, most individuals can do so with reasonable accurateness. Occasionally, however, an individual (with normal hearing ability) lacks this […]

Vocal underdoer syndrome

Vocal underdoer syndrome is a term coined by Dr. Anat Keidar and Dr. Robert Bastian to designate an individual whose amount and manner of voice use can be considered inadequate to keep the mechanism in good condition. Typically, the vocal underdoer syndrome comprises two parts: innate introversion/taciturnity and a life circumstance that permits, invites, or […]

Vocal Overdoer Syndrome

Vocal overdoer syndrome is a term coined by Dr. Anat Keidar and Dr. Bastian 1 to designate an individual whose amount and manner of voice use can be considered excessive and to thereby put the person at risk of mucosal injury. Typically, the vocal overdoer syndrome comprises two parts: 1) innate talkativeness; 2) a life circumstance (occupation, […]

Nonorganic Voice Disorder

A persistent voice change found not to be infectious, irritative, neurogenic, or the result of drug side effect. Instead, this represents a behavioral disturbance that may be associated with secondary gain. Often the vocal phenomenology of a nonorganic voice disorder-induced voice change is stereotypical and predictable in its manifestations; it is most often seen in […]

Muscular Tension Dysphonia (MTD)

Muscular tension dysphonia is a syndrome of excess tension in the paralaryngeal and suprahyoid muscles, with an open posterior glottic chink…