Phonatory Gap

Phonatory gap occurs when the vocal cords fail to close during phonation. A phonatory gap may be seen in patients who have muscle tension dysphonia, vocal cord paresis or paralysis, loss of tissue, or vocal cord flaccidity. In addition, however, a phonatory gap occasionally occurs in patients who have none of the above conditions. In […]

Torus Mandibularis

Torus mandibularis is a benign bony growth on the medial surface (tongue side) of the mandible or jaw bone. Also known as mandibular torus. Mandibular tori are usually seen on both the left and right sides (bilaterally). They often require no treatment unless they interfere with denture fitting. In laryngology, mandibular tori come to attention […]

Vocal Aberration

Vocal aberration is a vocal event or phenomenon that is unexpected and abnormal. It is “something the voice does that it shouldn’t.” These sorts of findings, in combination with vocal capabilities and vocal limitations, are listened for during the vocal capability battery. Tags

Pharyngeal Deviation

Pharyngeal deviation is a pulling of the posterior pharyngeal wall to one side, as sometimes seen when a patient performs the “pharyngeal squeeze.” This finding accompanies paresis or paralysis of the constrictor muscles of one side of the pharynx. In these cases, elicitation of the pharyngeal squeeze will reveal that the pharyngeal wall pulls to […]

Palate Deviation

A phenomenon in which, when the palate is lifted, the midline deviates to the normal side and the weak side droops. Palate deviation is seen in individuals who have paresis or paralysis of a hemi-palate due to Vagus nerve injury or dysfunction. It can be observed from either the oral cavity or nasopharynx view; subtle […]

Swallowing Phenomenology

Swallowing phenomenology are manifestations that are observable during the videoendoscopic swallowing study (VESS) or videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and that convey key information about a person’s swallowing function. This phenomenology may be visual or audible findings in or around the person’s swallowing passageway, or may be observations of the person’s general behavior. Tags


Attached completely at the base and without an intervening stalk; the opposite of pedunculated.

Integrative diagnostic model

The integrative diagnostic model is composed of a powerful, three-part methodology for diagnosis: a voice-focused history; assessment of vocal capabilities and vocal limitations via elicitation; and intense laryngeal examination.


Xylocaine is an anesthetic medication used for topical or for local (infiltrational) anesthesia. See also: lidocaine.

Working Diagnosis

Working diagnosis is a term used to refer to the leading contender in a list of two or more potential diagnoses. Infrequently, at the conclusion of the initial consultation, we have two fairly strong diagnostic possibilities, and begin with treatment for one of them, now termed the working diagnosis, as the next step in finalizing […]