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Articles, photo galleries, and videos ranging from A—Z for topics concerning laryngology.

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Coughing Disorders

These are certain chronic cough disorders:

Nonorganic cough

Sensory neuropathic cough (SNC)


illustration of sensory neuropathic cough

Benign Mucosal Lesions

Vocal Cord Vibratory Injuries

Common disorders that affect the voice are vibration-induced lesions, or injuries, of the surface layer of the vocal cords, called mucosa. This kind of injury usually happens when a person overuses or abuses his or her voice:


Benign Tumors

A tumor is considered benign if it doesn’t pose the threat of invading or spreading to other tissues:



Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

· Caused by human papillomavirus (HPV)

Malignant Tumors

A tumor is considered malignant if it has the potential to invade or spread to other tissues:



· Carcinoma in situ (CIS)

· Verrucous carcinoma


Voice Disorders

Functional Voice Disorders

Functional voice disorders arise not from abnormality of the mechanism itself but instead from abnormal use of the mechanism, affected by personality or deficit of vocal skill, without discernible secondary gain.

Neurological Voice Disorders

Disorders of the nervous system (neurological) can affect the voice in different ways:

Essential voice tremor

Spasmodic dysphonia, a kind of focal dystonia of the larynx; also, laryngeal dystonia

· Abductor spasmodic dysphonia; also called intermittent whisper phonation

· Adductor spasmodic dysphonia

· Atypical spasmodic dysphonia

· Classic variant spasmodic dysphonia

· Mixed AB-AD spasmodic dysphonia

· Tonic variant spasmodic dysphonia


Palate paralysis

Paralyzed vocal cords

· Vocal cord paralysis, bilateral

· Vocal cord paralysis, unilateral

· Superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) paralysis

Parkinson’s disease-related voice change

Pharyngeal paralysis

Vocal cord paresis

· LCA-only paresis

· TA-only paresis

· TA + LCA paresis

· PCA-only paresis

· IA-only paresis

Nonorganic Voice Disorder

Nonorganic voice disorders arise not from abnormality of the mechanism itself but instead from abnormal use of the mechanism, most often for conscious or subconscious secondary gain.

Miscellaneous Voice Disorders

These are other disorders that affect the voice or otherwise involve the larynx:


Arytenoid chondritis / perichondritis

Bilateral vocal cord fixation

Bowing of the vocal cords

Breathy dysphonia

Breathy-pressed phonation or dysphonia


Flaccidity of vocal cords

Fracture of larynx


Inability to burp or belch

Intubation injury

Marfan syndrome


Perimenopausal voice change

Phonatory insufficiency

Presbylarynx (Presbyphonia)


Vocal cord scissoring

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Search By Diagnostics


These different diagnostic models or methodologies affect which diagnostic procedures and tools are relied upon or, whether explicitly or in practice, viewed as optional:

Integrative diagnostic model

Reductionistic or technology-driven diagnostic model

Traditional diagnostic model

Types of Clinicians

These are the primary types of clinicians who focus on diagnosing and treating voice, swallowing, airway, and coughing disorders:

Speech-language pathologist

  · Singing voice qualified




Dr. Bastian explaining a Videoendoscopic swallowing study
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Treatment for Voice & Larynx Disorders


These are various procedures used (or previously used) to treat disorders of the voice or larynx:

Conservation surgery

Injection laryngoplasty, aka medialization laryngoplasty


  · Hemilaryngectomy

  · Supraglottic laryngectomy

  · Total laryngectomy


Neck dissection

Stripping of the vocal cord(s)


Tools & Materials

These are various tools and materials used (or previously used) to treat disorders of the voice or larynx:

Botulinum toxin, aka Botox™





Interferon (or alpha-interferon)

Laryngeal image biofeedback



Tracheo-esophageal voice prosthesis

Voice therapy

  · Relative voice rest and complete voice rest

  · Vocal hygiene

  · Voice building

Other Useful Terms

Types of Procedures

These are general types or categories of procedures used for treatment:

Endoscopic surgery

Inpatient surgery vs. outpatient surgery

Laser surgery

Common Tools

These are different tools used more generally in the process of treatment:

Endotracheal tube


  · RevoLix laser

Local anesthesia vs. general anesthesia

  · Xylocaine


Treatment Strategies

These are different kinds of general treatment strategies: