Narrowing in the esophagus. This narrowing can be congenital, or can result from causes such as trauma, surgery, chronic inflammation, cancer, and radiation. Esophageal stenosis can create swallowing difficulty, especially with solids. A common treatment approach is to begin with dilation (if a malignancy is not present) or a series of dilations, using a balloon dilator. If this measure fails, sometimes a stent is placed endoscopically.