Histoplasmosis

Infection by a fungal organism, Histoplasma capsulatum. This organism is found in soil, especially in areas contaminated by bird or bat droppings. Sometimes it is called “spelunker’s disease,” and it seems to be commoner in the Mississippi River valley than in other areas of the United States. Persons who contract this organism may not even […]

Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis

Idiopathic (unknown cause) inflammatory subglottic stenosis is a frustrating breathing problem seen mostly in women. It appears to be an autoimmune disorder that we have thought for many years to be an incomplete expression (forme fruste) of Wegener’s Granulomatosis, aka granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). In a caseload of perhaps 125 patients, it appears that standard […]

Subglottic Stenosis

Subglottic stenosis is narrowing just below the vocal cords, in the lowest part of the larynx and immediately above the first tracheal ring. Examples of causes include scarring from a breathing tube used during a long ICU stay, Wegener’s Granulomatosis (aka Granulomatosis with polyangiitis), and idiopathic subglottic stenosis (aka limited Wegener’s Granulomatosis). Subglottic Stenosis, after […]

Open Epidermoid Cyst

An open epidermoid cyst occurs when it spontaneously ruptures, but yet not empty all of its contents (keratin). The outline of the partially-emptied cyst may still be very evident, but it usually assumes an oval shape with the long axis oriented anteriorly and posteriorly. If the cyst empties nearly completely, the white oval is no […]

Surgical results: before and after photos

Vocal Polyps: An Actress’ Polyp Before and Hours After Surgical Removal Hemorrhagic Polyp, before and after Surgery Vocal Polyp, Before and After Surgery Pre-op and very early Post-op Mucosal Match and Flexibility in Male Singer For more info: Vocal polyps Vocal Nodules: Fibrosis as a Base to Nodules, Before and After Surgery Vocal Nodules, Before […]

Indicator Lesions

Indicator lesions are visual findings of vibratory injury in a person who has no current voice complaints, and whose “swelling checks” are normal. Background: Individuals who fit the “vocal overdoer profile” may only notice vocal limitations caused by vibratory injury on an occasional and transient basis. These episodes may be brushed off as insignificant, because […]

Vocal Cord Synechia

Vocal cord synechia is a strand of scar tissue that tethers the vocal cords to each other. It can prevent the vocal cords from opening fully for breathing. A synechia can also form in other parts of the body. (Note the subglottic synechia shown below.) Photos: Vocal Cord Synechia: Before, During, and After Surgery Ossified […]

Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) and Other HPV-Induced Lesions

A disorder in which wart-like tumors or other lesions grow recurrently within a person’s airway. These growths are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), and they may occur anywhere in a person’s airway, such as on the vocal cords (by far the most common site), in the supraglottic larynx, or in the trachea. If these […]

Laryngocele

A disorder in which the laryngeal saccule is inflated and becomes abnormally enlarged. A common symptom of a laryngocele is hoarseness. How it develops: The laryngeal saccule, or laryngeal appendix, is a very small blind sac—a dead-end corridor, so to speak—which is located just above the vocal cords, one on each side, and is lined […]