A Journal of Observational Laryngology

Clinical observations, anecdotes, and insights which other clinicians may want to consider and test with further research.

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Cricopharyngeus Spasm and What to Do About It

By Robert W. Bastian, MD

The information found below is a Q&A supplement to a teaching video on the same subject found at: http://laryngopedia.org/cricopharyngeal-spasm/#videos

Tell me more about the cricopharyngeus muscle. Where is it, and what is it for?

It is a sphincter, which is a circular muscle that makes a ring around the uppermost part of the esophagus to serve as a “valve” or “gateway” between the throat and esophagus. In the gastrointestinal tract, there is a series of additional sphincters: between lower esophagus and stomach; at the outlet of stomach into small intestine, and so forth down to the anus. Each of these sphincter muscles “at rest” is in a contracted state. When “in use,” each sphincter is momentarily relaxed.

When we swallow, the cricopharyngeus muscle sphincter must relax for a brief moment to let food or liquid out of the throat, through the sphincter, and into the upper esophagus. (It also relaxes momentarily, by the way, to release air from below upwards when we belch.) Normally we are unaware of this sphincter muscle because it functions outside of our consciousness.

You’ve used the word “spasm” as the cause of the sensation, but can you clarify what you mean?

By use of the word spasm, we don’t mean a cramp or a charley horse. It is instead sustained hypertonicity of the upper esophageal sphincter, or cricopharyngeus muscle. It is over-contracted. That’s why we become aware of it when this overcontraction gives rise to a feeling of pressure, choking, etc. as described below.

By analogy, we are normally unaware of neck muscles that we use to hold up our heads. Yet, we have all had the experience of tight posterior neck muscles that we find to be bothersome and to intrude sufficiently into quality of life that we might ask a friend “Can you rub my neck?” In similar fashion, cricopharyngeus spasm often intrudes into a person’s mental space, and becomes oppressive, but there seems to be no way to relieve the sensation. Not only that, but the sensation causes us to worry, partly because many people with this problem search in vain to find someone to explain this to them, and they are therefore unable to put aside their worry about the sensation.

What is the list of features or symptoms that constitute the syndrome of cricopharyngeus spasm?

  1. Location of the sensation is at the level of the cricoid cartilage in the mid-to low neck.
  2. The nature of sensation is often described with words like choking, pressure, constriction, swelling…. Or, “It feels like a wad of phlegm.” One other particularly common description is “It feels like there is something stuck in my throat that I can’t swallow and can’t spit out.” Many say that this sensation is oppressive and preoccupying.
  3. The magnitude of the sensation tends to vary. Most often, it tends to become worse as the day progresses. A person might also notice that symptoms increase when they are stressed or fatigued, whatever the time of day.
  4. Active eating provides transient relief of the sensation. While the discomfort seems to originate in the swallowing passage, there is no interference with actual travel of food or drink.That is, the person’s ability to swallow food and liquids is fine. And in fact, during active eating,such as at lunch or dinner, the sensation subsides or even goes away completely, only to begin to return soon after finishing that meal.

Why does eating reduce the symptoms?

A person can’t rub the tight muscle directly, but each time a swallow happens, the sphincter muscle must let go momentarily, as already mentioned. This is then a kind of therapy to the over-contracted, hypertonic muscle. Swallowing saliva doesn’t help, because the volume we swallow is small, and the swallows are widely spaced in time. Active eating of a sandwich or plate of food during a mealtime, by contrast, relaxes the sphincter fully every 10 to 20 seconds across a span of 15 minutes or more. To repeat, this serves as a kind of unplanned “therapy” of the muscle and the symptoms subside for a time.

What can be done?

There is an old saying by Alexander Pope: “To know ourselves diseased is half our cure.” This seems to apply here as many patients say that simply coming to understand the disorder, as described above, is a major step towards relief. One woman said: “When I understood what was wrong, and that I didn’t have to worry about cancer, the problem started to gradually go away across the next several weeks.

For this to happen, however, the patient must accept and really believe in their diagnosis. Doctors can help them feel secure by making the diagnosis partially through what we call a “mind reading” exercise. It works like this: Right after the person says “Doctor, there is a lump…..”, we gently stop him or her, and ask if we can try to “read their mind.” The idea is that at the end of the “mind reading”, the patient is invited to say, “That’s it exactly!” Or, “That is mostly it but you said _________ and I would say __________.” Or, the patient might say “That isn’t at all what I am experiencing” and in this third case, attention is turned to a different diagnosis. If the physician does successfully “read the patient’s mind,” describing patient symptoms exactly, the patient finds it easier to accept and believe in the diagnosis because of the “mind-reading” involved.

Keep in mind that there really isn’t an examination finding, blood test, or X-ray to make the diagnosis. It is based in the precise 4-part syndrome described above.

Many such patients report that they can now “throw the sensation over their shoulders.” In other words, if particularly symptomatic, they can more easily say to themselves: “That crazy muscle….” It is a little like ignoring the sensation of new glasses, or contact lenses. And as mentioned, many say that knowing and trusting the diagnosis all by itself is the beginning of slow, steady, reduction and eventual disappearance of the symptoms across a few weeks’ time.

What if I want to do more than just “know myself diseased”? Isn’t there anything medical the doctor can do?

The occasional patient asks this and our list of further options includes:

  1. Work with a physical therapist or speech pathologist. The focus of that work is anterior neck relaxation, possibly by use of surface biofeedback electrodes, yawning maneuvers or very gentlestrap muscle massage (carefully avoiding going anywhere near the vascular compartments of theneck/ carotid arteries!!)
  2. A confirmatory “diagnostic” test in the form of a muscle relaxant, such as valium. That medication, called a benzodiazepine, has a tranquilizer effect, but we actually wish we could take it out of the medication. For our purposes, it is only the muscle relaxant property that we want. But they of course come together…. So here is how to do the diagnostic trial
    1. We provide a prescription for four tablets of 5 mg each. These four tablets each represent a “diagnostic test.”
    2. Get into your pajamas about 2 hours before your normal bedtime on an evening whenyou are not planning to go out, and when you are also more than averagely symptomatic. Now take a moment to “commune” with your CPS sensation. “Measure” it on a 10-pointscale, for example. (Suppose you choose “6.”) Notify family that you are about to do your first diagnostic test of CPS. You can also set a loud timer for 90 minutes.
    3. Now, take Valium tablet #1.
    4. 90 minutes later, commune with/measure for a second time the level of the sensation. It is usually not gone altogether, but noticeably diminished. 25% to 75% reduction wouldbe what people commonly report. So on this particular evening, you might notice that“6” has become “2” or “3.” Again, this is the result of the direct muscle relaxant properties of Valium.
    5.  If you fall asleep on the couch and waken in the middle of the night, you have three more opportunities to do the diagnostic test in coming days or weeks.
  3.  Rarely, a person can have the muscle injected with botulinum toxin. This is in the extreme casewhere the person isn’t worried about the diagnosis, but is simply plagued by the sensation itself. Of hundreds of persons we have diagnosed with this disorder, we have done this in a singlepatient, who achieved great benefit for the duration of botulinum toxin effect, approximately 4 months.

In summary, hypertonicity in a circular, “valve” muscle mid- to low neck causes the sensation of a lump or choking, etc. It is a benign condition but especially while it remains undiagnosed, it can cause great distress and worry.

15 thoughts on “Cricopharyngeus Spasm and What to Do About It

  1. I have had a crycopharangel myotomy (pardon the spelling but I imagine you ccan figure it out) that did not help. Docttor said I had sensory neurogenic cough. When it hits it is brutal!! Anitriptilene? but didn’t work. Mine is complicated by a Zenker – deemed unoperable due to short neck and being too close to vocal folds and esophagus. Meanwhile the Zenker is growing and very often, I feel like there is something in my throat and will choke to death. The cough mostly hits when I am talking and sometimes when eating. I have heard so little about this affliction I was thrilled to read this article. Any further info, especially as regards to adding the Zenker would be appreciated.

  2. Dr Bastian, I hope you read this and I hope there is enough space here to share, almost two years ago I started getting this feeling that I had something in my throat and I was constricted, along with this I feel like I’m aspirating? (Taking Saliva Down my wind pipe) after about a month I finally went to my Dr to try and figure out what it is, First they gave me an Antibiotic, that didnt help, so they gave me a Steroid, that didnt help, I had a Sleep Apnea Test and was Diagnosed with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and was givin a C-Pap machine that I havent used because I need the full mask because I’m primarily a Mouth Breather and the Nose mask isnt gonna work for me, that being said I have Claustrophobia and just putting the nose mask on freaked me out, They sent me to an ENT Dr and I had an Endoscopy (Up my nose and down to my Vocal Chords) Nothing, I had a Swallow X-Ray test done with a Speech Pathologist, Nothing, I had a MRI done on my Brain to see if it was Parkinsons, Nothing, I had a Breathing Test which found I had great Lung Capacity, but no answer for the Constriction, or feeling like there is something in my throat, I went back to the ENT Dr and got another Endoscopy, Nothing, I had my Thyroid Checked with an Ultrasound, Nothing, I had another Swallow X-Ray test by the Speech Therapist, Nothing, I got a CT Scan of my Neck, Nothing, I went to a different ENT and had another Endoscopy, Nothing, I went to a G.I. Dr and he told me I had Post Nasal Drip, then he told me I had Acid Reflux, then he told me I had a Spasming Esophagus so he had me get an Upper G.I. and an Esophogram, then he scheduled me for an Endoscopy down my throat into my stomach in which he said I had eosinophilic esophagitis, he also said I had Esophagasm (Spasming Esophagus) he prescribed me Nitro Glycerin, that was way to hard to take, headaches, paranoia, suicidal effects UGH…., so he prescribed an alternative Nifedipine generic for Procardia, not as bad as the Nitro Glycerin but still hard to take, because he didnt seem to sure of any of these 5 things he diagnosed me with I went back to my Primary Care Dr and asked if I could see an Allergy Dr because the nature of the symptoms comes and goes like maybe I’m allergic to something, So I been seeing an allergist and he said I’m allergic to Tomatoes, Grass, Mold, Dust and prescribes allergy shots which I started a couple weeks ago, when I say comes and goes, I have good days and bad days, more bad then good, like 10 bad days, then 1 good day, some times when I’m doing physical things I seem to get a little reprieve, sleeping is difficult and I’m constantly trying to clear my throat and it is keeping my wife up at night.

    So with all that, I feel like nobody is getting it and they are just throwing things out there to see if something will stick, I been trying to read up on some many different things trying to figure out what it is I might have that has lead me down a trail of emptiness until I just stumbled on your video about Cricopharyngeus Spasm, is this also considered “Esophagasm”, if this is the case and you recommend Valium why did he give me Nitro Glycerin and Procardia, UGH!!!!!, I NEED HELP, my quality of life is disintegrating and when I got to bed at night I feel like I may not wake up in the morning because I’m going to choke and die, watching your video you seem to hit the nail on the head with my symptoms and the way I feel like I try to explain and nobody understands but you video nailed it, except that I feel like I’m taking saliva down my wind pipe and sometimes I do kind of choke because the muscles in my throat dont seem to be working properly.

    Can you please help me, I dont know where to turn next because it seems I have exhausted all help and nobody seems to understand my problem, except your video is making sense more then every Dr and Specialist and test Ive gone through, where do I start or go from here?

    Thanx for your time


  3. @Eric…very interesting that you have Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    I also have EoE. I have also done many of the same diagnostic tests as well as tried many of the same medications, of which, all have come up short.

    EoE is known to cause globus aka Crichopharyngeal Spasm.

    My guess on this is the scarring from EoE causes some hyertonicity in the UES and/or we may be simply feeling the inflammation/scarring.

    I would talk to your doc about a double does of ppi, swallowed steroid (fluticasone or budenoside).

    Lastly, one drug I have heard other have success with is Singular. It works very differently from an antihistamine. Unfortunately, in the US it’s not available OTC.

    Good luck, and I hope we all one day figure this darned thing out. It really is life changing.

  4. My symptom,other than a tightness in my throat chiefly is a strong pressure in my ears via the eustachian tubes on a dry swallow.Have you had any patients with this symptom?My physicians are at a loss and have not made a diagnosis in over two years.The ear pressure has been a life changing symptom and I would greatly appreciate any advice on treating it.

  5. I have the throat issues as well as ear pressure. I constantly find myself popping my ears. I can manage the “spasms” by relaxing my shoulders for the most part, but still have them.

  6. I wish that I could find a way to manage the pulse of eustachion tube pressure when I swallow.If I have had a few glasses of wine it is a bit better.

  7. I have the lump in the throat feeling since March of this year. It started out as a heavy feeling on my chest so I went to see the cardio and he did an ECG, stress test and heart x-ray and all were normal. He referred me to the GI as the problem started when I had 2 pieces of KFC chicken so he thought that it was gastro-related. The GI doctor started me out with 40mg of Pantozol twice a day before meals. I also bought probiotic Enterogermina which helped for little while but it stopped working after a few days. They heavy pressure on my chest decreased but the lump on the throat persisted. He did endoscopy and found nothing but mild gastritis. On the discharge sheet though he mentioned on the clinic information GORD (or GERD) and dyspepsia. He told me to continue with the Pantozol and Enterogermina for another month. He said that the Pantozol takes at least a month for the symptoms to relieve. I will see him at the end of this month.

    Some of the other symptoms I have is I feel like there is something coming up to my neck then slowly goes back down. I burp constantly and I need to clear my throat frequently. Sometimes when the pressure is too much, my ear is affected (like you have water inside). I don’t have the usual heartburn symptoms of GERD so I don’t think it is acid reflux.

    Will update here when I see him next time.

  8. This article and the comments sound so much like what has been happening to me. I’m pretty confident I have cricopharyngeal spasms brought on by a combination of GERD and using advair

    In May, I had to take an antibiotic for an abscess tooth. Several doses into the the amoxicillin I had a bad reaction. My stomach felt very painful and my throat felt right. Ever since then I have had the globus sensation. At first it first like reflux coming up my throat (so much so I might be sick) then the throat sort of locks up. It caused me to feel very panicked the first time. I felt like I couldn’t even swallow my saliva.

    It got so bad that I felt I might throw up a couple of times. I even had to walk out of a party because of it. Ever since I have this fear that I might get the choking sensation in a public place and it’s made me almost agoraphobic. I hate this !!

    My GP believed it was caused by GERD so he put me on a PPI and prescribed a very low dose of Ativan to alleviate anxiety symptoms. The PPI has done not just nothing. The Ativan doesn’t get rid of the feeling. Either but makes me less anxious when I do feel it. I also had hoarseness at this time which he attributes to my inhaled steroid which I’ve since quit. It has improved some overall.

    It’s basically been 2.5 months of hell that is getting somewhat better.

    I’m going back to the GP to analyze this again. In my opinion, it’s CPS brought on by GERD, gastritis and voice strain. If anyone has any tips on how to manage these symptoms that would be wonderful

  9. I am experiencing something very similar actually. Three years ago during a stressful period of exams, I was walking to the hairdressers when I had a really odd tight, lumpy feeling in my throat. It was almost nauseating. About halfway there, I stopped in my tracks and ‘gagged’ (what I now believe to have been a spasm). Because I’ve always had a bit of a fear of being sick and I had no idea what had just happened (I assumed my body had tried to vomit) I was completely freaked out. I worried about it happening the next day, and it did. I worried so much about this odd reflex that it began to happen more and more frequently and like you, I pretty much became agoraphobic. I was too scared to eat in restaurants, meet up with friends etc. I was diagnosed with panic disorder and told I was just having panic attacks but the word ‘panic attack’ never really sat right with me. Sure, this weird reflex was making me pretty anxious but I never really experienced the typical symptoms of a panic attack.

    So three years have gone by and I’ve been desperately trying to figure out what the heck is happening to me. I came across a few articles about Cricopharyngeal spasms and pretty much had a eureka moment. Everything they described was what I’ve been experiencing all these years. It was like an insane breakthrough. I feel like all this time I’ve been having spasms misdiagnosed as panic attacks. A week before discovering this, I had gone to my doctor once again about the horrible feeling in my throat, for the first time, a doctor considered my symptoms to be something other than anxiety and she prescribed me a course of tablets for GERD. These have somewhat helped so I’m sure GERD is a contributing factor.

  10. Thank you so much for sharing this. I’m sorry you have been suffering this hell too. Your symptoms sound very, very similar to mine. I too have a strong aversion to throwing up (or seeing it) so I’ve pretty much diagnosed myself with emetophobia . I have never been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, but I’m fairly certain I meet a lot of the criteria for OCD (most emets also have OCD).

    I really doubt though, like you said, that this is all panic disorder. I have noticed that ativan helps manage the severity of the gagging/choking problem but that’s entirely consistent with the CPS diagnosis. Ativan and other benzos like valium relax muscles. CPS involves hypertonic muscles! What kind of treatment did they put you on for panic disorder once you had that diagnosis? Did it help at all?

    My new theory goes something like this–people like us who have GERD and possibly other aggravating factors like voice strain or even allergic esophagitis (eosinophilic variety) have strained throat/glossopharyngeal muscles. When we are under stress this situation is even worse given that tension/anxiety can create a feeling of tightness in the throat.

    Unfortunately for us, some perfect storm of crap leads to an episode of gagging or choking so severe it sets off our latent emetophobia. This in turn create a pattern of behavior that looks a heck of a lot like Generalized anxiety disorder but actually isn’t.

    I think both of us have a physical condition–cricopharyngeal spasms–brought about by other underlying physical causes like GERD. Our emetophobia is unfortunately sent into overdrive by constantly feeling a choking/gagging sensation. Our intense fear of vomiting in public has given us some agoraphobic like behaviors. The key, though, is that we don’t have generalized anxiety disorder as such and the treatment approach for that is likely not going to resolve our issues. Perhaps both of us might benefit from CBT targeted directly at emetophobia, though?

    I REALLY hope the GERD treatment helps you. I will continue to research and look for solutions and I will share them with you. Please stay in touch about your progress! I wish you the best!

  11. Please have your doctor check for esophageal Inlet patch. Doctors down play the importance of this finding. I had two and after every endoscopy they would make it seem negligible. Finally I had it ablated with barrx and it helped. Get those patches out. Don’t let the dr tell you that’s not what causing it.

  12. I have a question for the Dr. about my son’s situation. Can you please contact me or do I send through this site? My son is 20 and has been dealing with throat tightness where it has put a real damper on his enjoyment of life since this has been happening. Can the Dr please contact me with an email where I can email this information Please I really could use your help. Thanks you for your time regarding this matter

  13. Thanks Dr Bastian for this explanation. Its exactly how I’m feeling. Started about 2weeks ago and i thought it was my ulcer symptoms that is making me feel that way. I have taken lots of antacids but no changes, this article makes me feel better. But i would like to ask if there’s any medication or diets that can help.

  14. Sounds like what I have and began the day of an endoscopy…However, the muscles up the right half of my face (sometimes all) and ptosis upper right eyebrow/forehead are also affected as well as muscles back of skull. Although I have bone spur in neck and bulging cervical discs, Dr. sending me to PT. There are days Ii’m so depressed I can’t imaging living like this forever. It has absolutely changed my quality of life and feels so unfair.

    I also had a tummy tuck 10/19 and it exacerbated my GERD and brought on all kinds of other conditions with the increase in abdominal pressure. Just FYI to those considering.

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