Vocal cord paresis

The partial loss of voluntary motion for one or more of the muscles that move the vocal cords. Paresis is to be distinguished from paralysis, which refers to a complete loss of motion. Sometimes, however, the terms “paralysis” or “paralyzed” are used less precisely to encompass any kind of loss of motion, partial or complete. But we prefer the term “paresis” whenever it applies, and below we suggest a way to use this term when describing more complicated cases of vocal cords with reduced or no mobility.

Paresis or paralysis of a muscle or muscle group is caused by damage to its nerve supply. In other words, the underlying cause of a paretic or paralyzed muscle’s immobility is not a disorder of that muscle per se, but a disorder of the nerve supplying that muscle. Perhaps for this reason, it is common to speak of paralysis according to the nerve involved, rather than the muscle or muscles; in the world of laryngology, for example, we speak of “paralysis of the recurrent nerve.” However, it seems more logical to describe paralysis or paresis according to what is actually immobilized: the muscles. For example: if in a given case only the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle is immobilized, then instead of calling that “paralysis of the recurrent nerve,” we would call it “PCA-only vocal cord paresis.”

In that example, though, some might wonder if it would be better for us to say “paralysis” instead of “paresis.” In other words, should we describe the nature of the immobility of the PCA muscle alone (so that, if the PCA is totally immobile, we would say “PCA-only vocal cord paralysis”) or that of the vocal cord’s entire set of muscles (which as a group is only partially immobile, so we would stick with “PCA-only vocal cord paresis”)? We think that, in general, it is more helpful to do the latter. To illustrate, here is an imaginary conversation: “Is this vocal cord paralyzed or paretic?” “Paretic.” “Which kind of paresis is it?” “PCA-only.”

It is surprisingly easy to diagnose the different variants of vocal cord paresis with a straightforward visual examination. Click on a particular variant to learn more:

Photos of TA + LCA vocal cord paresis:

Photos of TA-only vocal cord paresis:

Photos of LCA-only vocal cord paresis:

Photos of PCA-only vocal cord paresis:

Photos of IA-only vocal cord paresis:


Injection Medialization for Vocal Cord Paresis
See an example of one variant of vocal cord paresis and how it limits the voice. Then watch a medialization procedure in which voice gel is injected into the vocal cord affected by paresis, and hear how the voice thereafter improves.