Ever wonder how we laugh? can’t be loaded because JavaScript is disabled: Laughing ( VESS of the laryngopharynx during laughter VESS Recorded at Bastian Voice Institute can’t be loaded because JavaScript is disabled: Laugh ( Laughing that can be seen and heard! In this video, Dr. Bastian looks into the esophagus via VESS. […]

Supraglottic Phonation

Supraglottic phonation is making voice by means of supraglottic vibration rather than glottic (true vocal cord) vibration. The supraglottic tissues used for vibration can vary between individuals. Vibrating tissue can be the false vocal cords (false cord phonation), aryepiglottic cords, or apical arytenoid mucosa. Supraglottic phonation may become necessary if the vocal cords are absent […]

False Cord Phonation

False cord phonation is making voice by vibrating the false vocal cords. This kind of phonation is unlike normal phonation or voice-making, which uses the true vocal cords. This produces a much deeper, rougher voice quality than normal phonation. It is purposefully used in certain kinds of vocal performance, such as Tibetan chant or heavy […]

Laryngeal Vestibule

The “airspace” above the level of the vocal folds that is bounded by the posterior surface of the epiglottis, the medial surfaces of the aryepiglottic folds, and the anterior faces of the arytenoid cartilages. Tags

Tracheoesophageal Party Wall

The membranous shared wall between the trachea and esophagus. The tracheoesophageal party wall is also known as the membranous trachea. This membranous wall makes up one-third of the trachea’s circumference; the other two-thirds is bolstered and stiffened by cartilaginous rings. These stiff cartilaginous rings help to keep the trachea open, whereas the membranous wall has […]

Posterior Commissure

The flat, front-facing surface of the glottic aperture that lies between the vocal cord posterior ends. When the vocal cords are in abducted (breathing) position, the posterior commissure is at its widest, since the cords’ posterior ends are spread furthest apart from each other. When the vocal cords have come together into adducted (voicing) position, the […]

Anterior Commissure

The point at which the vocal cords are joined together, which is at the most anterior end of each cord. Compare this with the posterior commissure. See also: Anterior Commissure Microweb Tags


Hypopharynx is the inferior-most part of the pharynx, made up of the pyriform sinuses, the lowest part of the posterior pharyngeal wall, and the post-arytenoid/post-cricoid areas. Reflux Into Hypopharynx, Characteristic of Cricopharyngeal Dysfunction Hypopharynx Pooling After Swallow Cervical Osteophyte Tags

Pyriform Sinus

Pyriform sinus refers to the pear-shaped fossa (Latin for “trench”) just lateral to the laryngeal entrance. Its medial surface is the aryepiglottic cord; laterally it is bounded by the thyroid cartilage, and posteriorly by the low posterior pharyngeal wall. The pyriform fossas and post-arytenoid area together constitute the “swallowing crescent,” which channels swallowed material just […]

Vocal Process

A projection of the anterior arytenoid cartilage, to which is attached the membranous vocal cord. Arytenoid’s Vocal Process Vocal Processes of the Arytenoid Cartilages, Accentuated by Vocal Cord Atrophy Tags