Swelling Checks to Detect Vibratory (Overuse) Injury to the Surface Tissue (Mucosa) of the Vocal Cords

These are used to detect acute or chronic vocal fold mucosal injury reliably; Secondarily, they can also detect gaps between otherwise normal folds. They provide persons with a way to detect mucosal trouble for themselves. We are in effect “taking all of the clothes off the mucosa.” The swelling checks are for anyone who uses the voice extensively or vigorously—particularly vocal overdoers.

Motivated Laryngeal Examination

A “Motivated” laryngeal examination is an examination in which the clinician “pushes” the larynx to reveal its secrets. If topical anesthesia is used, this can be done without undue discomfort to the patient, and laryngeal images can be close and clear rather than far and fuzzy. Subtle Papillomas and the Importance of A Motivated Examination […]


A siren is an uninterrupted sound that begins very low in a person’s vocal range and ascends to a very high pitch, sometimes the highest possible pitch that person can produce. A single siren could also go from low to high and back to low one or more times without interruption. A clinician might ask […]

Projected Voice

Projected voice is one that is perceptibly “thrown” or “called out,” as when talking to a group of 20 or more people. A clinician might ask a patient to project the voice during the vocal capability battery in order, for example, to reveal weakness not evident or only slightly apparent at normal speaking voice volume, […]

Vocal Commitments

Events or circumstances that permit, invite, or demand much voice use. A person’s vocal commitments could include his or her occupation, childcare, rehearsals and performances, hobbies or even volunteer activities to which a person is highly committed, sports, and so forth. Heavy vocal commitments and innative talkativeness are the two potential sources of vocal overuse […]

Vocal Loudness Scale

Vocal loudness scale is a scale from 1 to 7 that we use to describe the loudness of a person’s typical speaking voice as compared with one’s experience of the rest of the human race. For example, someone whose vocal loudness seems to be unexceptional and does not draw any attention to itself—average, in other […]

Narrow-band Illumination

The use of only two narrow wave bands of light (blue and green) during an endoscopic examination, so as to make blood vessels and other tissues in the mucosa more visible. Blood vessels become more visible under narrow-band illumination because both of the wave bands are easily absorbed by hemoglobin in the blood. In addition, […]

Esophageal Manometry

Esophageal manometry is a test that measures the resting pressures and dynamic pressure waves within the esophagus. Esophageal manometry may be performed when a barium esophagram shows dysmotility, stasis of material, failure of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (achalasia), etc.

Videoendoscopic Swallowing Study (VESS)

A videoendoscopic swallowing study is an evaluation of a person’s swallowing ability by means of a video-documented exam, looking from inside the throat.

Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS)

An x-ray-based method of evaluating a person’s swallowing ability. The videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) is also sometimes called the modified barium swallow, or the “cookie swallow.” In a radiology suite under fluoroscopy (which creates moving rather than still x-ray images), the patient is asked to swallow barium in thin liquid and paste consistencies, and then […]