A disorder in which the laryngeal saccule is inflated and becomes abnormally enlarged. A common symptom of a laryngocele is hoarseness. How it develops: The laryngeal saccule, or laryngeal appendix, is a very small blind sac—a dead-end corridor, so to speak—which is located just above the vocal cords, one on each side, and is lined […]

Vallecular Cyst

A vallecular cyst is a mucus-containing cyst in the vallecula. Such cysts are relatively common. Vallecular cysts are almost always asymptomatic and found during examination for another issue, such as a voice problem. Vallecular Cysts don’t Disturb Swallowing—Except When They Do Laser for A Type of Lesion Usually Left Alone Tags

Anterior Commissure Microweb

Anterior commissure microweb is a tiny webbing between the vocal cords at the anterior commissure, where the two cords meet. Some think that this can help to cause vocal nodules, but we do not see any such relationship. Microweb Capillary Ectasia with Vocal Nodules Nuances “Gleaned” from Daily Examinations Tags


Pachyderma literally means “elephant skin.” Used in laryngology to refer to rough or thick mucosa. Most often seen in the interarytenoid area and is thought to be indicative of acid reflux or, sometimes, chronic bacterial infection. It does not typically affect the voice, though the underlying cause of the pachyderma can (e.g., chronic inflammation from […]

Saccular Cyst

A closed sac originating from a formerly open and functioning laryngeal saccule. An analogy for a saccular cyst is a velvet bag used to hold coins which has its opening cinched shut by a drawstring. The mouth of the saccule becomes blocked, and mucus secreted within the saccule cannot escape through the normal opening in […]

Supraglottic Cyst

A retention-type cyst of the supraglottic structures not manifesting as either an anterior or lateral saccular cyst. With a supraglottic cyst, the duct of a single gland is thought to become obstructed and to thereby retain secretions. By contrast, with a saccular cyst, the mouth of the laryngeal saccule becomes obstructed.

Post-Radiation Telangiectasia

Post-radiation telangiectasia is atypical dilation or formation of capillaries (typically seen in the laryngopharynx) as a mid- or long-term response to radiation. These are a benign but sometimes impressive-looking tissue change. Often, post-radiation telangiectasia does not appear until a year or more following the end of the course of radiation. Photos: Telangiectasia, Gradually Developing Post-radiation […]

Mucus Retention Cyst

Mucus Retention Cyst is a cyst that forms when one of the mucus glands just below the vocal cord’s free margin becomes plugged. Mucus glands in this location secrete mucus in order to bathe and lubricate the vocal cords, but if a gland becomes obstructed, then the mucus it produces gets trapped and accumulates, leading […]


Leukoplakia is a white patch found on the mucosa anywhere in the body. In the larynx, it is most often seen on the vocal cords, either in long-time smokers or in individuals with some other cause of chronic inflammation. It is the descriptive term for what, on biopsy, may prove to be keratosis, carcinoma in […]

Laryngopharynx Acid Reflux Disease (LPRD)

Laryngopharynx acid reflux disease (LPRD) is a constellation of symptoms and findings caused by reflux (backwards flow) of stomach acid into the throat or larynx, typically during sleep. It may be seen with or without the heartburn, acid belching, etc., commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The classic symptoms of LPRD may be exaggerated in the […]